Types of door keys. Keys for lever locks. Main types of locks by type of locking mechanisms

Main types of keys

Often, when calling the TurboLock emergency lock picking service, customers ask the locksmiths how quickly they can come and open their lock.
In a fit of emotions and experiences, a person often cannot explain to the master what kind of lock he uses and the type of key in the house, while he wants to know the approximate cost of the master’s work and the time frame for the work performed. In order to increase the awareness of our clients, we would like to provide information about the main types of keys:

1 English key , or cylinder lock key (flat key with ribs on the edge). The most common, and at the same time less secure, type of key is very easy to open, since it has an insufficiently reliable burglary protection system.

2. High security cylinder key (double-sided key, key with two grooves). It is considered more advanced in terms of secrecy and complexity of pins and pins inside the mechanism.

3. Perforated key (flat key with drilled grooves). It is also called “Eurokey”, but the name is very conditional, since these keys, as well as the larvae that they open, are made in Asia and China in particular. The operating principle is similar to the above keys (pin system).

4. Key for cylinder disc lock (Finnish key). It appears to be more advanced in terms of the difficulty of breaking a door, due to the special arrangement of cylinders or plates in the design of the lock.

5. Pump key.

6. Cross key. The key has a cross shape. Used for cylinder pin lock. Despite good secrecy, the resistance to burglary of such a lock is very low.

7. Level key (safe type key, butterfly key). These keys are used for lever locks. The length of the key and the number of grooves determine the level of security and burglary resistance of the lock. In addition to door locks, such keys are often used in safes.



  • 1 Disklock (D) 1.1 Abloy Disklock
  • 1.2 Washers in Disklock.
  • 1.3 Disklock security levels.
  • 1.4 Disklock key profiles.
  • 1.5 Key cutting and reading.
  • 1.6 Key code decoding scheme.
  • 1.7 Disklock master system.
  • 1.8 How it works.
  • 1.9 Disklock cross-section.
  • 2 Disklock Pro.
      2.1 Disks in Disklock Pro.
  • 2.2 Washers in Disklock Pro.
  • 2.3 Security levels of Disklock Pro.
  • 2.4 Disklock Pro key profiles.
  • 3 Disklock VS Disklock Pro.
  • 4 Exec(E).
      4.1 Disks in Exec.
  • 4.2 Using different numbers of disks.
  • 4.3 Exec Security Levels
  • 4.4 Exec key profiles.
  • 4.5 Operation of the Exec disk control system.
  • 4.6 Sectional view of the Exec furniture lock.
  • 5 Concluding comments.
  • This is a translation of the second part of a series of articles by Han Fey about Abloy cylinders (August 2005).

    Its English version is posted here. The costs of translation and technical editing were covered by the website dverizamki.org. When reprinting an article, a link to the source before the text is required.

    My name is Heng Fei and I am a padlock collector from the Netherlands. I enjoy writing articles that give people information about solutions used in high security locking systems. I devoted my first article about Abloy to a description of the classic and High Profile. In the second part I plan to go further in the evolution of Abloy systems. You will see that as Abloy develops its systems, it truly improves them, both in terms of functionality for users and in terms of tamper resistance. In this article I will talk about technical solutions, as well as the benefits obtained as a result of their application. I'll look into Disklock

    Disklock Pro
    . In my next article (see part 3) I will talk about Abloy's newest system, the Protec. Since some Disklock parts are also used in Protec, I will describe them in the article about Protec. My personal collection contains approximately 150 different padlocks made by Abloy. This article is the result of studying these castles; they determine my ideas and understanding of this topic. I cannot guarantee the complete accuracy of the content, but this is the best I can do.

    Types of keys for cylinder locks

    English key

    The English key a few years ago was popular among residents of countries not only in Europe, but also in the CIS and Russia. The corresponding locks were usually installed in wooden doors. And such lock models could not be called safe. The key itself has teeth only on one edge of the working surface, the second is completely smooth, with a groove located in the center.

    Finnish key

    Finnish key is another name - Swedish. Outwardly it looks unusual due to the complex working surface. Both of its edges are distinguished by the presence of multi-format teeth; in the center there is a groove with notches. The Finnish castle is considered to have a medium degree of secrecy.

    Cross key

    Disk key

    Perforated key

    Its peculiarity is the absence of teeth. However, it is distinguished by the presence of a large number of recesses - perforations. These keys are suitable for locks made in China, Turkey and Italy. Experts believe that these can be classified as medium-security locks.

    How to install a mechanism in a door

    Prepare a drill, drill bits, pencil, screwdriver. Mark the structure. If you choose a mortise lock, you need to prepare a groove. If the door is made of metal, a hole is cut in the side shelf for the crossbars and safety bolt. The canvas is drilled to install the handle. A groove is also prepared in the frame. The lock body is installed using fasteners. When the locking mechanism is secured in the groove of the blade, it needs to be adjusted. At the same time, the sash closes, and the key is used to check the operation of the lock. When necessary, adjust the position of the larva and tighten the fasteners.


    If the locking mechanism does not close well, or the key periodically jams, you need to find out the reason. This may be a consequence of improper use of the door: too much forced pressure due to the seal, regular impacts on the frame. If these causes are eliminated, the operation of the mechanism will be normalized. It is not recommended to disassemble locking structures. This can lead to permanent breakdown and loss of security of the lock. If there are no external factors that have a negative impact on the operation of the locking structure, it is replaced.

    Types of keys for lever locks

    All unlocking structures belonging to this typology differ from each other in size, number of notches and teeth on the ribs. Some have one longitudinal protrusion, some have two. The more there are, the higher the chances of completely securing your home. In addition, the secrecy of the lock itself may depend on other indicators:

    The key for a pump-type lever lock differs from its “brothers”. At first glance, it seems that it is very similar to the standard one, however, the teeth of the working surface are located neither on the right nor on the left, but in the front. In order to open the lock with it, you must press the key firmly and turn it.


    Types of lock keys

    It is not the key that determines what design and type it should be, but the locking mechanism that determines which keys will open it.

    There are different types of keys for the following locks.


    This is a simple type of lock that can be easily broken by brute force or by force. They are not popular, but are used to close interior doors or buildings that do not require reliable protection from burglary.

    English cylinder mechanism

    These keys are cheap. Making copies of them requires no effort. This is done in a few minutes and costs about 100 rubles.

    The classic English key uses one side. Thieves learned how to pick such locks a long time ago. This is not difficult for them, so manufacturers make the key using its entire surface as much as possible. This is how double-sided samples appeared.

    The producers did not achieve anything significant with this. The doors have been and are being broken open. They did not make it more difficult to penetrate such locks. For new locks, they came up with new methods and ways to bypass the secrets. Therefore, double-sided copies did not consolidate their success. The protective properties of a single-sided and double-sided key are the same, but the former costs less.


    The following types of keys are cross keys. They are used like English ones for cylinder locks. Such samples were born later than their English counterparts, and therefore are distinguished by their complex shape. They clearly took into account the bitter experience of English models.


    But this does not increase their reliability. This is because cross models come with locking mechanisms made of fragile metal. If it is impossible to open such locks by selection, then small mechanical influences can be used.


    This is a kind of remake of the cross samples. They have a lot in common. They have similar shapes, and besides, the quality of the locks, like those of cross-type mechanisms, is not very reliable. They can be easily broken open by force or the cylinders can be drilled with a drill.


    The name of the keys for locks comes from their similarity to a punched card. Models appeared much later than previous samples. They are used as one of the main means of protecting houses and apartments from burglary.


    One lock is not able to deter a thief, so they use a couple or better yet several methods of protection. Therefore, several locking mechanisms are installed, to open which you need a key shaped like a punch card.

    They began to produce improved cylinder locks, which can be opened with keys of this type. A special feature of the mechanisms is the presence of armored linings on the cylinder, which are designed to protect against forceful break-ins.

    installation of steel doors price


    These are large keys, usually for safe locks. Large sizes bring certain inconveniences when storing them in pockets, but lever locks have proven themselves to be reliable locks.

    Thieves have tools and hacking techniques for every lock. Likewise, lever mechanisms have disadvantages.

    On the one hand, lever keys have the advantage that they cannot be copied in a homemade way. Copies are made using sophisticated equipment. This factor protects the locks from being copied.

    Classic safe mechanism

    The high degree of protection of lever mechanisms made it possible to use them to protect houses and apartments.

    Attention! The door is equipped with at least two locks. And be sure to have different types so that both have a high degree of protection.


    This type of door locks and their unlocking elements appeared on the market relatively recently. Although they are young, they still do not have high reliability indicators.

    A distinctive feature of the mechanism is that the key must be pressed harder into the keyhole. Only then turn it. This action achieves a shift in the pumps. They are cheaper, but compared to level or punched cards, they are less reliable.

    Mounting key

    The mounting wrench is used by lock installers to test the locking mechanism. They are used when checking a recoded lock. The same mounting key is used for a specific mechanism model. Therefore, you should not use it, because it is neither temporary nor permanent, but an installation key. If you do not change the lock code, then it is accessible to almost anyone.


    This type is characterized by the fact that one mechanism can have several unlocking elements. Their number reaches hundreds or more. The main feature is the code. Each of them has its own unique code, which is recorded in the lock’s memory.

    Intercom coded keys

    Such systems are used in intercom devices. The identifier is applied to the reader, the system reads the code and unlocks the door. Reliability lies in the impossibility of mechanical hacking. And to overcome an electromagnetic lock requires great effort.

    There are many different ways to secure your home. Each of the mechanisms is unique and has a degree of protection. Reliability depends on the number of key combinations and the secrecy of the locking mechanism. For greater reliability, it is better to use several locking devices. Description of various home security devices


    Frequent causes of cruciform mechanism breakdowns

    In most cases, the need to open a door without using a key arises in the event of a breakdown of the cross mechanism. The cause of the breakdown also affects how to solve it. Sometimes it takes a couple of minutes to fix a breakdown, but sometimes lubrication alone is not enough and you have to hack the entire system and install a new lock. To understand the course of action, you need to understand what causes breakdowns in cross-shaped locks.

    • Most often, the cause of jamming of the cross device is the misalignment of the door leaf due to its frequent use, heavy weight or poor quality of hanging.
    • The second reason is that the lock is clogged, which prevents the key from taking the desired position and turning the mechanism.
    • Shift or breakage of the mechanism elements is also an obstacle to unlocking the lock.
    • Breakage of the larva itself.
    • Manufacturing defect.
    • Incorrect operation.
    • Failed hacking attempt.

    The listed reasons are an obstacle to entering the premises, and if this cannot be done naturally, you can open the lock in other ways.

    Simple modern keys

    Since then, the development of technology has stepped far forward and keys, like locks, today are high-tech devices, with electronics, complex laser cuts and, paired with the appropriate cylinder, can serve as reliable protection for your doors. The simplest modern key is considered to be “Pinocchio”. This is a simple key, without any special secrecy, the essence of which is to turn the mechanism with a flat tongue. Only the size of this tongue and the response mechanism inside the lock varies.

    Key "Pinocchio"

    The traditional and most common key in our time is considered to be the so-called “English”. The principle of such a key is based on the lever mechanism of the lock. When the key is inserted, the pins in such a cylinder line up in height, which means that the more pins and the more curved the key profile, the higher its secrecy. However, the reliability of such keys today is called into question; such keys are poorly protected from selection, duplication or hacking with a master key.

    English key

    The “Finnish” or disk key was invented by the Finnish company ABLOY. The cylinder uses a series of discs that, depending on the angle of rotation, open or prevent the key from passing through. The profile of such a key has characteristic grooves carved at different angles. Despite the complexity of making a key, secrets of this type themselves are not very resistant to forceful hacking.


    Level keys are also known as “butterfly” keys because of their shape.


    High security keys

    In modern locks, so-called perforated or “Euro keys” are increasingly found. The cutting or perforation in such a key runs vertically and equally on both sides, so that they can be inserted on either side. They are cut with a special cutter, which makes recesses - holes of a certain depth, ensuring high secrecy and resistance to master keys. The cylinder uses spring-loaded pins, the position of which must exactly match the holes, thus opening the lock. The greater the number of holes and pins, the higher the secrecy of the lock and the complexity of making the key. The position of the pins and their number provide a variety of code combinations. In the most complex modern cylinders, manufacturers guarantee billions of combinations, which negates the lockpick method. Additionally, perforated keys are complicated by grooves, straight or wavy, holes are carved in a variety of places, and the most complex ones are equipped with “floating” interactive elements. the Mul-t-lock 7×7 cylinder key

    , despite its simplicity, the key can be used in the “Master Key” or “One Key” system, that is, to restrict access and open several doors.

    Perforated with interactive element
    Perforated with interactive element and FingerPin

    Evva has developed a unique key

    . There are grooves carved into it, thereby forming curves along which the locking elements of the cylinder move. The base of the key is a special cutout made for more precise fit of the guides.


    Disc cylinders, unlike pin cylinders, consist of rotating disks, the stroke of which is regulated by notches on the key.


    In cylinders of the Abloy Protec 2

    the key is made in such a way that it ideally matches the required position of the disks to open the lock. Additionally, the key is reinforced with interactive elements, which negates the ability to open the lock with a master key and provides 2 billion secret key combinations. Duplicates of such keys are made by official dealers with a code card.

    Disk with interactive element

    Classification by type of locking mechanism

    Padlocks are simpler. Mortise and overhead options are characterized by different operating principles. Their mechanism is much more complex. When choosing a lock design for external doors, several options are considered:

    • mechanical;
    • electromechanical;
    • magnetic.

    Each of the options is presented in several versions; they share a similar principle of operation, but there are significant differences in design.


    The cylinder of such a lock is made in the form of a cylinder. This ensures the secrecy of the mechanism. The locking part of the structure consists of pins. They are contained in quantities of 5-6 pieces. Among them there is a drilling pin and a locking pin. These are moving elements that change position thanks to return springs located at the bottom. When the key is inserted into the keyhole, each of the moving elements takes its position, which is determined by the perforations on the key.

    Electronic keys with CLIQ technology

    Today, keys are equipped not only with mechanical protection, but also with a variety of electronic technologies, which, in addition to additional secrecy, provide a number of advantages, such as differentiation and access control.

    Perforated with interactive element and electronic CLIQ system

    The MUL-T-LOCK company completes cylinders of the MT5+ series

    patented CLIQ technology. Thanks to this technology, access to the lock can be limited even if the key matches perfectly. It is possible to limit access time and keep a log of the opening of the lock with different keys. The keys themselves are perforated with an interactive element and a wave-shaped Finger Pin groove. There is a microchip in the head of the key that operates using the Triple DES communication protocol. Each new key, after production, must be entered into the database, only after that it will be possible to open the door with it. The key is made in authorized service centers with a passport and is not included in the cylinder delivery set.

    Perforated with interactive element and FingerPin with CLIQ system

    ABLOY Protec 2 Hard series cylinders operate using CLIQ technology

    . A disk key with an interactive element is equipped with light and sound indication of granting or denying access. In the head of the key, a microchip is protected using IP-57 technology from dust and moisture. Power for the CLIQ system is provided by a standard CR2452 element.

    Disk with interactive element and CLIQ system

    In all the variety of cylinders today, the key plays an important role. Keys can be either simple or complex, with electronics, additional protection, and a variety of designs. When choosing a cylinder, you should pay attention to the key itself, because depending on the security technologies used in it, the complexity of hacking and opening increases many times over.


    Criteria for choosing a lock

    After reading the article, we can conclude that using a cross lock as a locking device on an apartment door is not the best option. Therefore, you will have to find a more reliable analogue. In order not to make a mistake with your choice, you need to follow some rules:

    • When choosing a lock, you should not focus on its cost. It is much more important to know its technical characteristics and burglary resistance class. Expensive models do not always have high levels of protection, so listen to the recommendations of consultants and study the instructions for the lock.
    • The lock is selected taking into account the door leaf, or more precisely, taking into account the material from which the door is made. For example, mechanical locks are not suitable for wooden doors.
    • Installing electromagnetic locks is only possible if your home never loses power. Otherwise, it is very difficult to guarantee the safety of things.
    • Armor plate is not a luxury, but a means of protection. Therefore, when choosing locks, give preference to models with its presence.
    • To protect the premises, you need locks of at least 3-4 burglary resistance class.
    • When purchasing a lock, pay attention to the safety of the packaging.

    Types of keys for locks and the history of their appearance

    The production of door keys and locks has developed very much in recent years and has acquired many different options and modifications. There are many types of lock keys, most of which are familiar to you. All of them are suitable for a certain type of lock, the most common type of key is perhaps the “safe”, which is the name given to the key for a lever lock, which has gained great popularity due to its good protective and operational characteristics. Read more about the types of keys below.

    Padlock - what is it?

    This device is designed to prevent theft of property or unauthorized entry into the premises. A modern padlock can be an electronic or mechanical device. The autonomous design allows it to be completely separated from the eyes installed on the door, grille, hatch or other product. There are many modifications of padlocks, which differ in the size of the shackles, the material of the case, and the type of secret.

    Apartment keys

    This category includes types of keys that are used in entrance and interior doors of apartments, offices, garages and other premises.

    Security is one of the main conditions for survival in modern society. For centuries, people have tried to protect themselves, their real estate, property, personal information and cash from attacks by other individuals. Many methods of protection have been created for this. The simplest thing is iron doors and reliable locks. And only you yourself, using your apartment keys, have access to them.

    Usually, when you install a new door in an apartment, the production of keys along with the lock is carried out in production, and then, complete with the lock, you receive a whole set of spare keys. However, situations may always arise where duplicates are required.

    History of the keys

    The evolution of locks and keys dates back to ancient times. One of the most ancient keys, wooden and very simple from a pin lock, was discovered by archaeologists in the tomb of Pharaoh Ramses II the Great (XIII century BC). Locks and keys have gone from simple wooden to metal and electronic.

    There are many lock manufacturers on the modern market, but they all use key types that have been proven over the years. For example, “English” - a key with teeth (can be single-sided or double-sided), used for a cylinder mechanism (cylinder). Finnish key (“finka”) is a semicircular profile, first developed by Abloy, for a disc lock. It became widespread during Soviet times.

    Level key, also one of the ancient representatives of the genus. The key is a rod with a beard (flag) on ​​which protrusions are made that push plates in the lock mechanism. Lever keys are often used in safe locks. Merchants and jailers wore such keys on their belts.

    Another variety is rack and pinion keys, which they loved to make in Soviet factories with their own hands. The key is a rack with oblique grooves at the base. In the USSR it was a “garage” key.

    vertical keyVertical (perforated) key, a more modern option for a cylinder lock. “Vertical” - has indentations on the plane (profile) of the key into which the pins (“soldiers”) of the lock cylinder fit; the key looks like a punched card.

    Modern lock manufacturers offer improved key models, for example, “interactive” keys with a magnet built into the profile, which also contacts the lock cylinder, increasing secrecy.

    Also in the modern world, electronic keys are used, for example, for intercoms and other electronic access systems. These can be “tablets”, “magnets”, “tags”, “chips”, whatever they are called, as well as cards.

    Recently, mechanical keys with built-in chips (electronic keys), similar to car keys, have appeared.

    And let's not forget about coded “keys”, from a combination lock consisting of a set of numbers that you can store in your head.

    Car keys are represented by classic types, as well as modern designs. Classic keys - metal, with an English blade and a vertical type (“snake”), of all kinds of profiles. For convenience (so as not to tear your pocket))) keys are used in a flip-out case.

    Car manufacturers are constantly improving safety systems. So, since 1995, chips have been used in car keys - electronic keys or immobilizer keys (chips), which increase the anti-theft properties of the car; you can’t use a screwdriver anymore))

    What about intercom access codes?

    Here, too, everything depends on the intercom. But most models that are installed in the Russian Federation now support entering combinations of characters that allow you to open the door. This often works on Visit intercoms and less often on models from other manufacturers.

    We deliberately do not publish combinations, at least because the list for all models will be long. will almost certainly google the master code for your intercom . Unless, of course, the door opening code was changed during installation for your own safety.

    These are not at all the numbers that are written to your key. For example, the length of a simple key for DS1990A tablets from the Dallas company is 6 bytes, which is 281474976710656 different combinations. You are unlikely to remember a combination of this length, but you can read it on the keychain itself. A hexadecimal key is usually laser engraved on the surface.

    PS Previously, there was a horribly banal life hack: keys with the code 00 00 00 or FF FF FF could open all doors. It was these values ​​that were recorded in the free cells of the intercom and participated in the comparison when checking the key. But this hole has long been closed.

    220 votes, overall rating: 4.64 out of 5)

    ( 1 rating, average 4 out of 5 )
    Did you like the article? Share with friends:
    For any suggestions regarding the site: [email protected]
    Для любых предложений по сайту: [email protected]